Disease & Conditions


Quality management of your health condition can greatly improve your health outcomes, even with diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and cancer. It's important to Know Your Numbers!



Diabetes:          Newly Diagnosed?


Are You at Risk?


What  is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar/blood glucose levels are too high.  Glucose comes from the foods you eat.  Your body naturally produces a hormone called insulin, which helps glucose get to the cells and organs when and where it is needed for energy.  You may be diagnosed with diabetes if your body does not produce enough insulin, or has difficulty making enough insulin to manage the glucose in your blood.  Without enough insulin, the cells and organs don’t get the glucose they need.


How do you know if you have diabetes or if you are pre-diabetic?

Pre-diabetes means your blood sugar/blood glucose is higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes.  Having pre-diabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting Type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes means your body does not make or use insulin well.  It was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, and may account for more than 90% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes means your body produces very little or no insulin.  It was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes and is usually found in 5% of those with diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes women may get due to their pregnancy.  If not treated, it can cause problems for the mother and their baby.  Gestational diabetes develops in up to 10% of all pregnancies but usually disappears when a pregnancy is over.


Local resources:

Living Healthy with Diabetes Program  A FREE 6-week program designed for people living with diabetes or the people who care for them. Enter your zip code to see a listing of programs offered throughout Dutchess County and across the country.

The Center for Diabetes Management of Mid Hudson Regional Hospital of Westchester Medical Center


Working with a professional diabetes educator can also help individuals to learn how to manage their disease and be as healthy as possible:

American Association of Diabetic Educators           AADE's Find a Diabetes Educator

Additional resources:

American Diabetes Association                                 National Diabetes Education Program


Please see our Health & Wellness page for more tips for improving your health.

Cardiovascular Disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States.  Although great strides have been made in cardiovascular disease treatment over the last 50 years, it is still vitally important to understand your risks for heart disease, and how to take steps to minimize those risks.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when a substance called plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart.  Plaque is made up of cholesterol.  When this happens, your arteries can narrow over time and can cause chest pain, the most common symptom.  Coronary artery disease is the most common type of heart disease and is directly linked to heart attacks and cardiac arrest.

Heart Attack: A heart attack happens when the blood supply to the heart muscle is restricted or cut off, causing the cells of the heart muscle to die.  Without appropriate and rapid treatment, the muscle can be permanently damaged or the heart can stop beating altogether.  Know what a heart attack is, if you are at risk, what the warning signs and symptoms are especially for women, and steps you can take to reduce your risk.

Cardiac Arrest:  Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating completely.

High blood pressure is also known as hypertension.  If you’ve been diagnosed with high blood pressure, you may want to better understand what that means, how to help improve your blood pressure, and even how to take your own blood pressure.  These resources can give you all that information and more:

American Heart Association
Million Hearts

A stroke is a blockage or hemorrhage of a blood vessel leading to the brain, which can lead to a loss of oxygen supply, which can cause symptoms such as weakness or paralysis in parts of the body, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, or death.  Immediate medical treatment can reduce the potential for permanent brain damage.

AHA/American Stroke Association

Other considerations when dealing with heart disease:

Depression is common after a stroke, heart attack, cardiac surgery or new diagnosis of heart disease.  These emotions may be the result of not knowing what to expect or not being able to do simple tasks without becoming overly tired.  When a depressed mood is severe and accompanied by other symptoms that persist every day for two or more weeks, treatment is necessary to help you cope and recover. If you, or someone you love, is battling depression, the Dutchess County HELPLINE is available 24/7/365.

Additional Emotional Health/Depression Resources:

AHA’s Emotional Upheaval
American Psychological Association
Dutchess County Helpline
Mental Health & Heart Health Articles
Stress Management

Healthy Heart Living Resources:

Physical Activity

AHA National Walking Day

Healthy Eating

Eat Smart New York

Tobacco Use - (also link to Health and Wellness)

New York State Smokers’ Quitline

Please see our Health & Wellness page for more tips for improving your health.

Local Events

Annual Heart Walk Dutchess County
AHA National Walking Day
Annual Go Red for Women Heart Luncheon
Go Red for Women

Information for Populations Based on Race and Ethnicity:

African Americans  (Fast Facts)
Asian Americans
Hispanic/Latino Americans


Obesity has become epidemic in the United States for all age groups and an ongoing topic in science news and public health.  In order to address obesity issues and encourage improving the nation’s health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working to implement policy and environmental strategies to make healthy eating and active living accessible and affordable for everyone.

The Weight of the Nation campaign is a four-part documentary series featuring case studies, interviews with our nation’s leading experts, and individuals, families and communities struggling with obesity.


Cancer is a complex group of diseases which are related to genetics, lifestyle, and other unknown factors.  “Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control.  Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells.  Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells can’t do.  Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell.”

Screening is one of the most important tools in the fight against the many forms of cancer.  By including recommended screenings in your annual health review with your provider, you can improve your health outcomes and have peace of mind.  Recommended screenings include:

Remember to discuss these screenings with your healthcare provider to learn more and make an informed decision about recommended screenings.

Cancer Prevention

While not all cancers are preventable, many can be prevented by avoiding tobacco, regularly exercising, and maintaining a diet rich in vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and low-fat proteins.

The American Cancer Society has developed guidelines regarding body weight, nutrition, and physical activity. Learn how following these guidelines may help lower your risk for certain cancers. You can also find answers to common questions people have about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplement use.

Coping with Cancer

Cancer is an insidious disease and can impact your body, mind, family and work. You may need strategies to help with challenges and questions that present with a cancer diagnosis. National Cancer Institute has publications which may assist you in your journey.

Find out more about what we are doing in New York State and in Dutchess County to help those living with cancer.


Children and Young Adults:

Health Disparities

Local Resources:


Additonal Resources:

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A. K. Vaidian, MD, MPH,Commissioner of Behavioral & Community Health A. K. Vaidian, MD, MPH
Commissioner of Behavioral & Community Health
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