Info Finder

Department Info

Federal Language from 40CFR141.32 Public Notification

Department of Behavioral & Community Health

Not NYS approved. Modify to taste.

Trichloroethylene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that trichloroethylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is a common metal cleaning and dry cleaning fluid. It generally gets into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set forth the enforceable drinking water standard for trichloroethylene at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Carbon tetrachloride

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that carbon tetrachloride is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical was once a popular household cleaning fluid. It generally gets into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for carbon tetrachloride at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Go to top of page

1,2-Dichloroethane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 1,2-dichloroethane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is used as a cleaning fluid for fats, oils, waxes, and resins. It generally gets into drinking water from improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for 1,2-dichloroethane at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Vinyl chloride

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that vinyl chloride is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is used in industry and is found in drinking water as a result of the breakdown of related solvents. The solvents are used as cleaners and degreasers of metals and generally get into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been associated with significantly increased risks of cancer among certain industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during their working careers. This chemical has also been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause increased risk of cancer among exposed industrial workers and in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for vinyl chloride at 0.002 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in humans and laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Go to top of page

Benzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that benzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is used as a solvent and degreaser of metals. It is also a major component of gasoline. Drinking water contamination generally results from leaking undergound gasoline and petroleum tanks or improper waste disposal. This chemical has been associated with significantly increased risks of leukemia among certain industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during their working careers. This chemical has also been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause increased risk of cancer among exposed industrial workers and in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for benzene at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in humans and laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

1,1-Dichloroethylene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 1,1-dichloroethylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is used in industry and is found in drinking water as a result of the breakdown of related solvents. The solvents are used as cleaners and degreasers of metals and generally get into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause liver and kidney damage in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals which cause adverse effects in laboratory animals also may cause adverse health effects in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for 1,1-dichloroethylene at 0.007 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of these adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Go to top of page

Para-dichlorobenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that para-dichlorobenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is a component of deodorizers, moth balls, and pesticides. It generally gets into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause liver and kidney damage in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals which cause adverse effects in laboratory animals also may cause adverse health effects in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for para-dichlorobenzene at 0.075 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of these adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that the 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This chemical is used as a cleaner and degreaser of metals. It generally gets into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, nervous system, and circulatory system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Some industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during their working careers also suffered damage to the liver, nervous system, and circulatory system. Chemicals which cause adverse effects among exposed industrial workers and in laboratory animals also may cause adverse health effects in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. EPA has set the enforceable drinking water standard for 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects which have been observed in humans and laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Microbiological contaminants (for use when there is a violation of the treatment technique requirements for filtration and disinfection in Subpart H of this part)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants are a health concern at certain levels of exposure. If water is inadequately treated, microbiological contaminants in that water may cause disease. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and possibly jaundice, and any associated headaches and fatigue. These symptoms, however, are not just associated with disease-causing organisms in drinking water, but also may be caused by a number of factors other than your drinking water. EPA has set enforceable requirements for treating drinking water to reduce the risk of these adverse health effects. Treatment such as filtering and disinfecting the water removes or destroys microbiological contaminants. Drinking water which is treated to meet EPA requirements is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe.

Go to top of page

Lead

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that lead is a health concern at certain exposure levels. Materials that contain lead have frequently been used in the construction of water supply distribution systems, and plumbing systems in private homes and other buildings. The most commonly found materials include service lines, pipes, brass and bronze fixtures, and solders and fluxes. Lead in these materials can contaminate drinking water as a result of the corrosion that takes place when water comes into contact with those materials. Lead can cause a variety of adverse health effects in humans. At relatively low levels of exposure, these effects may include interference with red blood cell chemistry, delays in normal physical and mental development in babies and young children, slight deficits in the attention span, hearing, and learning abilities of children, and slight increases in the blood pressure of some adults. EPA's national primary drinking water regulation requires all public water systems to optimize corrosion control to minimize lead contamination resulting from the corrosion of plumbing materials. Public water systems serving 50,000 people or fewer that have lead concentrations below 15 parts per billion (ppb) in more than 90% of tap water samples (the EPA 'action level') have optimized their corrosion control treatment. Any water system that exceeds the action level must also monitor their source water to determine whether treatment to remove lead in source water is needed. Any water system that continues to exceed the action level after installation of corrosion control and/or source water treatment must eventually replace all lead service lines contributing in excess of 15 (ppb) of lead to drinking water. Any water system that exceeds the action level must also undertake a public education program to inform consumers of ways they can reduce their exposure to potentially high levels of lead in drinking water.

Copper

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that copper is a health concern at certain exposure levels.. Copper, a reddish-brown metal, is often used to plumb residential and commercial structures that are connected to water distribution systems. Copper contaminating drinking water as a corrosion byproduct occurs as the result of the corrosion of copper pipes that remain in contact with water for a prolonged period of time. Copper is an essential nutrient, but at high doses it has been shown to cause stomach and intestinal distress, liver and kidney damage, and anemia. Persons with Wilson's disease may be at a higher risk of health effects due to copper than the general public. EPA's national primary drinking water regulation requires all public water systems to install optimal corrosion control to minimize copper contamination resulting from the corrosion of plumbing materials. Public water systems serving 50,000 people or fewer that have copper concentrations below 1.3 parts per million (ppm) in more than 90% of tap water samples (the EPA 'action level') are not required to install or improve their treatment. Any water system that exceeds the action level must also monitor their source water to determine whether treatment to remove copper in source water is needed.

Go to top of page

Asbestos

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that asbestos fibers greater than 10 micrometers in length are a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral. Most asbestos fibers in drinking water are less than 10 micrometers in length and occur in drinking water from natural sources and from corroded asbestos-cement pipes in the distribution system. The major uses of asbestos were in the production of cements, floor tiles, paper products, paint, and caulking; in transportation-related applications; and in the production of textiles and plastics. Asbestos was once a popular insulating and fire retardant material. Inhalation studies have shown that various forms of asbestos have produced lung tumors in laboratory animals. The available information on the risk of developing gastrointestinal tract cancer associated with the ingestion of asbestos from drinking water is limited. Ingestion of intermediate-range chrysotile asbestos fibers greater than 10 micrometers in length is associated with causing benign tumors in male rats. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for asbestos at 7 million long fibers per liter to reduce the potential risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to asbestos.

Barium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that barium is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic chemical occurs naturally in some aquifers that serve as sources of ground water. It is also used in oil and gas drilling muds, automotive paints, bricks, tiles and jet fuels. It generally gets into drinking water after dissolving from naturally occurring minerals in the ground. This chemical may damage the heart and cardiovascular system, and is associated with high blood pressure in laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. In humans, EPA believes that effects from barium on blood pressure should not occur below 2 parts per million (ppm) in drinking water. EPA has set the drinking water standard for barium at 2 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to barium.

Go to top of page

Cadmium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that cadmium is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Food and the smoking of tobacco are common sources of general exposure. This inorganic metal is a contaminant in the metals used to galvanize pipe. It generally gets into water by corrosion of galvanized pipes or by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney in animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Some industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during working careers also suffered damage to the kidney. EPA has set the drinking water standard for cadmium at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to cadmium.

Chromium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that chromium is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic metal occurs naturally in the ground and is often used in the electroplating of metals. It generally gets into water from runoff from old mining operations and improper waste disposal from plating operations. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney, nervous system, and the circulatory system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels. Some humans who were exposed to high levels of this chemical suffered liver and kidney damage, dermatitis and respiratory problems. EPA has set the drinking water standard for chromium at 0.1 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to chromium.

Go to top of page

Fluoride

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that we send you this notice on the level of fluoride in your drinking water. The drinking water in your community has a fluoride concentration of (ENTER LEVEL HERE) milligrams per liter (mg/l). Federal regulations require that fluoride, which occurs naturally in your water supply, not exceed a concentration of 4.0 mg/l in drinking water. This is an enforceable standard called a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), and it has been established to protect the public health. Exposure to drinking water levels above 4.0 mg/l for many years may result in some cases of crippling skeletal fluorosis, which is a serious bone disorder.

Federal law also requires that we notify you when monitoring indicates that the fluoride in your drinking water exceeds 2.0 mg/l. This is intended to alert families about dental problems that might affect children under nine years of age. The fluoride concentration of your water exceeds this federal guideline. Fluoride in children's drinking water at levels of approximately 1 mg/l reduces the number of dental cavities. However, some children exposed to levels of fluoride greater than about 2.0 mg/l may develop dental fluorosis.. Dental fluorosis, in its moderate and severe forms, is a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth. Because dental fluorosis occurs only when developing teeth (before they erupt from the gums) are exposed to elevated fluoride levels, households without children are not expected to be affected by this level of fluoride. Families with children under the age of nine are encouraged to seek other sources of drinking water for their children to avoid the possibility of staining and pitting.

Your water supplier can lower the concentration of fluoride in your water so that you will still receive the benefits of cavity prevention while the possibility of stained and pitted teeth is minimized. Removal of fluoride may increase your water costs. Treatment systems are also commercially available for home use. Low fluoride bottled drinking water that would meet all standards is also commercially available.

Mercury

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that mercury is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic metal is used in electrical equipment and some water pumps. It usually gets into water as a result of improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney of laboratory animals such as rats when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for mercury at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to mercury.

Go to top of page

Nitrate

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that nitrate poses an acute health concern at certain levels of exposure. Nitrate is used in fertilizer and is found in sewage and wastes from human and/or farm animals and generally gets into drinking water from those activities. Excessive levels of nitrate in drinking water have caused serious illness and sometimes death in infants under six months of age. The serious illness in infants is caused because nitrate is converted to nitrite in the body. Nitrite interferes with the oxygen carrying capacity of the child's blood. This is an acute disease in that symptoms can develop rapidly in infants. In most cases, health deteriorates over a period of days. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin. Clearly, expert medical advice should be sought immediately if these symptoms occur. The purpose of this notice is to encourage parents and other responsible parties to provide infants with an alternate source of drinking water. Local and State health authorities are the best source for information concerning alternate sources of drinking water for infants. EPA has set the drinking water standard at 10 parts per million (ppm) for nitrate to protect against the risk of these adverse effects. EPA has also set a drinking water standard for nitrite at 1 ppm. To allow for the fact that the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite are additive, EPA has also established a standard for the sum of nitrate and nitrite at 10 ppm. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to nitrate.

Nitrite

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that nitrite poses an acute health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic chemical is used in fertilizers and is found in sewage and wastes from humans and/or farm animals and generally gets into drinking water as a result of those activities. While excessive levels of nitrite in drinking water have not been observed, other sources of nitrite have caused serious illness and sometimes death in infants under six months of age. The serious illness in infants is caused because nitrite interferes with the oxygen carrying capacity of the child's blood. This is an acute disease in that symptoms can develop rapidly. However, in most cases, health deteriorates over a period of days. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin. Clearly, expert medical advice should be sought immediately if these symptoms occur.. The purpose of this notice is to encourage parents and other responsible parties to provide infants with an alternate source of drinking water. Local and State health authorities are the best source for information concerning alternate sources of drinking water for infants. EPA has set the drinking water standard at 1 part per million (ppm) for nitrite to protect against the risk of these adverse effects. EPA has also set a drinking water standard for nitrate (converted to nitrite in humans) at 10 ppm and for the sum of nitrate and nitrite at 10 ppm. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to nitrite.

Go to top of page

Selenium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that selenium is a health concern at certain high levels of exposure. Selenium is also an essential nutrient at low levels of exposure. This inorganic chemical is found naturally in food and soils and is used in electronics, photocopy operations, the manufacture of glass, chemicals, drugs, and as a fungicide and a feed additive. In humans, exposure to high levels of selenium over a long period of time has resulted in a number of adverse health effects, including a loss of feeling and control in the arms and legs. EPA has set the drinking water standard for selenium at 0.05 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to selenium.

Acrylamide

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that acrylamide is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Polymers made from acrylamide are sometimes used to treat water supplies to remove particulate contaminants. Acrylamide has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. Sufficiently large doses of acrylamide are known to cause neurological injury. EPA has set the drinking water standard for acrylamide using a treatment technique to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. This treatment technique limits the amount of acrylamide in the polymer and the amount of the polymer which may be added to drinking water to remove particulates. Drinking water systems which comply with this treatment technique have little to no risk and are considered safe with respect to acrylamide.

Go to top of page

Alachlor

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that alachlor is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a widely used pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, alachlor may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for alachlor at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to alachlor.

Aldicarb

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that aldicarb is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Aldicarb is a widely used pesticide. Under certain soil and climatic conditions (e.g., sandy soil and high rainfall), aldicarb may leach into ground water after normal agricultural applications to crops such as potatoes or peanuts or may enter drinking water supplies as a result of surface runoff. This chemical has been shown to damage the nervous system in laboratory animals such as rats and dogs exposed to high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for aldicarb at 0.003 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to aldicarb.

Go to top of page

Aldicarb sulfoxide

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that aldicarb sulfoxide is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Aldicarb is a widely used pesticide. Aldicarb sulfoxide in ground water is primarily a breakdown product of aldicarb. Under certain soil and climatic conditions (e.g., sandy soil and high rainfall), aldicarb sulfoxide may leach into ground water after normal agricultural applications to crops such as potatoes or peanuts or may enter drinking water supplies as a result of surface runoff. This chemical has been shown to damage the nervous system in laboratory animals such as rats and dogs exposed to high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for aldicarb sulfoxide at 0.004 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to aldicarb sulfoxide.

Aldicarb sulfone

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that aldicarb sulfone is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Aldicarb is a widely used pesticide. Aldicarb sulfone is formed from the breakdown of aldicarb and is considered for registration as a pesticide under the name aldoxycarb. Under certain soil and climatic conditions (e.g., sandy soil and high rainfall), aldicarb sulfone may leach into ground water after normal agricultural applications to crops such as potatoes or peanuts or may enter drinking water supplies as a result of surface runoff. This chemical has been shown to damage the nervous system in laboratory animals such as rats and dogs exposed to high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for aldicarb sulfone at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to aldicarb sulfone.

Go to top of page

Atrazine

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that atrazine is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a herbicide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, atrazine may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to affect offspring of rats and the heart of dogs. EPA has set the drinking water standard for atrazine at 0.003 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to atrazine.

Carbofuran

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that carbofuran is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, carbofuran may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the nervous and reproductive systems of laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during their working careers also suffered damage to the nervous system. Effects on the nervous system are generally rapidly reversible. EPA has set the drinking water standard for carbofuran at 0.04 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to carbofuran.

Go to top of page

Chlordane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA sets drinking water standards and has determined that chlordane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a pesticide used to control termites. Chlordane is not very mobile in soils. It usually gets into drinking water after application near water supply intakes or wells. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for chlordane at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to chlordane.

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that DBCP is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical was once a popular pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, dibromochloropropane may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for DBCP at 0.0002 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to DBCP.

Go to top of page

o-Dichlorobenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that o-dichlorobenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent in the production of pesticides and dyes. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney and the blood cells of laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Some industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during working careers also suffered damage to the liver, nervous system, and circulatory system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for o-dichlorobenzene at 0.6 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to o-dichlorobenzene.

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes drinking water standards and has determined that cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent and intermediate in chemical production. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, nervous system, and circulatory system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice when exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the nervous system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for cis-1,2-dichloroethylene at 0.07 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to cis-1,2-dichloroethylene.

Go to top of page

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes drinking water standards and has determined that trans-1,2-dichloroethylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent and intermediate in chemical production. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, nervous system, and the circulatory system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice when exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the nervous system. EPA has set drinking water standard for trans-1,2-dichloroethylene at 0.1 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to trans-1,2-dichloroethylene.

1,2-Dichloropropane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 1,2-dichloropropane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent and pesticide.. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, 1,2-dichloropropane may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. It may also get into drinking water through improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for 1,2-dichloropropane at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to 1,2-dichloropropane.

Go to top of page

2,4-D

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 2,4-D is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a herbicide and to control algae in reservoirs. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, 2,4-D may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver and kidney of laboratory animals such as rats exposed at high levels during their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the nervous system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for 2,4-D at 0.07 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to 2,4-D.

Epichlorohydrin

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that epichlorohydrin is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Polymers made from epichlorohydrin are sometimes used in the treatment of water supplies as a flocculent to remove particulates. Epichlorohydrin generally gets into drinking water by improper use of these polymers. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for epichlorohydrin using a treatment technique to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. This treatment technique limits the amount of epichlorohydrin in the polymer and the amount of the polymer which may be added to drinking water as a flocculent to remove particulates. Drinking water systems which comply with this treatment technique have little to no risk and are considered safe with respect to epichlorohydrin.

Go to top of page

Ethylbenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined ethylbenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a major component of gasoline. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal or leaking gasoline tanks. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney, liver, and nervous system of laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for ethylbenzene at 0.7 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to ethylbenzene.

Ethylene dibromide (EDB)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that EDB is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical was once a popular pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, EDB may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for EDB at 0.00005 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to EDB.

Go to top of page

Heptachlor

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that heptachlor is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical was once a popular pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, heptachlor may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standards for heptachlor at 0.0004 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to heptachlor.

Heptachlor epoxide

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that heptachlor epoxide is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical was once a popular pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, heptachlor expoxide may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standards for heptachlor epoxide at 0.0002 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to heptachlor epoxide.

Go to top of page

Lindane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that lindane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, lindane may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney, nervous system, and immune system of laboratory animals such as rats, mice and dogs exposed at high levels during their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the nervous system and circulatory system. EPA has established the drinking water standard for lindane at 0.0002 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to lindane.

Methoxychlor

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that methoxychlor is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a pesticide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, methoxychlor may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney, nervous system, and reproductive system of laboratory animals such as rats exposed at high levels during their lifetimes. It has also been shown to produce growth retardation in rats. EPA has set the drinking water standard for methoxychlor at 0.04 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to methoxychlor.

Go to top of page

Monochlorobenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that monochlorobenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney and nervous system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for monochlorobenzene at 0.1 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to monochlorobenzene.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern at certain levels of exposure. These organic chemicals were once widely used in electrical transformers and other industrial equipment. They generally get into drinking water by improper waste disposal or leaking electrical industrial equipment. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for PCBs at 0.0005 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to PCBs.

Go to top of page

Pentachlorophenol

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that pentachlorophenol is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a wood preservative, herbicide, disinfectant, and defoliant. It generally gets into drinking water by runoff into surface water or leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to produce adverse reproductive effects and to damage the liver and kidneys of laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the liver and kidneys. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for pentachlorophenol at 0.001 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to pentachlorophenol.

Styrene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that styrene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is commonly used to make plastics and is sometimes a component of resins used for drinking water treatment. Styrene may get into drinking water from improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver and nervous system in laboratory animals when exposed at high levels during their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for styrene at 0.1 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to styrene.

Go to top of page

Tetrachloroethylene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that tetrachloroethylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical has been a popular solvent, particularly for dry cleaning. It generally gets into drinking water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for tetrachloroethylene at 0.005 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to tetrachloroethylene.

Toluene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that toluene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of gasoline for airplanes. It generally gets into water by improper waste disposal or leaking underground storage tanks. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney, nervous system, and circulatory system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Some industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during working careers also suffered damage to the liver, kidney and nervous system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for toluene at 1 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to toluene.

Go to top of page

Toxaphene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that toxaphene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical was once a pesticide widely used on cotton, corn, soybeans, pineapples and other crops. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, toxaphene may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for toxaphene at 0.003 part per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to toxaphene.

2,4,5-TP

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 2,4,5-TP is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a herbicide. When soil and climatic conditions are favorable, 2,4,5-TP may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or by leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver and kidney of laboratory animals such as rats and dogs exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Some industrial workers who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical during working careers also suffered damage to the nervous system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for 2,4,5-TP at 0.05 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to 2,4,5-TP.

Go to top of page

Xylenes

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that xylene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used in the manufacture of gasoline for airplanes and as a solvent for pesticides, and as a cleaner and degreaser of metals. It usually gets into water by improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney and nervous system of laboratory animals such as rats and dogs exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Some humans who were exposed to relatively large amounts of this chemical also suffered damage to the nervous system. EPA has set the drinking water standard for xylene at 10 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and is considered safe with respect to xylene.

Antimony

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that antimony is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic chemical occurs naturally in soils, ground water and surface waters and is often used in the flame retardant industry. It is also used in ceramics, glass, batteries, fireworks and explosives. It may get into drinking water through natural weathering of rock, industrial production, municipal waste disposal or manufacturing processes. This chemical has been shown to decrease longevity, and altered blood levels of cholesterol and glucose in laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for antimony at 0.006 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to antimony.

Go to top of page

Beryllium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that beryllium is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic metal occurs naturally in soils, ground water and surface waters and is often used in electrical equipment and electrical components. It generally gets into water from runoff from mining operations, discharge from processing plants and improper waste disposal. Beryllium compounds have been associated with damage to the bones and lungs and induction of cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. There is limited evidence to suggest that beryllium may pose a cancer risk via drinking water exposure. Therefore, EPA based the health assessment on noncancer effects with an extra uncertainty factor to account for possible carcinogenicity. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for beryllium at 0.004 part per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to beryllium.

Cyanide

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that cyanide is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic chemical is used in electroplating, steel processing, plastics, synthetic fabrics and fertilizer products. It usually gets into water as a result of improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage the spleen, brain and liver of humans fatally poisoned with cyanide. EPA has set the drinking water standard for cyanide at 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to cyanide.

Go to top of page

Nickel

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that nickel poses a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This inorganic metal occurs naturally in soils, ground water and surface waters and is often used in electroplating, stainless steel and alloy products. It generally gets into water from mining and refining operations. This chemical has been shown to damage the heart and liver in laboratory animals when the animals are exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard at 0.1 parts per million (ppm) for nickel to protect against the risk of these adverse effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to nickel.

Thallium

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that thallium is a health concern at certain high levels of exposure. This inorganic metal is found naturally in soils and is used in electronics, pharmaceuticals, and the manufacture of glass and alloys. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney, liver, brain and intestines of laboratory animals when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for thallium at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to thallium.

Go to top of page

Benzo(a)pyrene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that benzo(a)pyrene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Cigarette smoke and charbroiled meats are common source of general exposure. The major source of benzo(a)pyrene in drinking water is the leaching from coal tar lining and sealants in water storage tanks. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for benzo(a)pyrene at 0.0002 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of cancer. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to benzo(a)pyrene.

Dalapon

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that dalapon is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a widely used herbicide. It may get into drinking water after application to control grasses in crops, drainage ditches and along railroads. This chemical has been shown to cause damage to the kidney and liver in laboratory animals when the animals are exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for dalapon at 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to dalapon.

Go to top of page

Dichloromethane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a widely used solvent. It is used in the manufacture of paint remover, as a metal degreaser and as an aerosol propellant. It generally gets into drinking water after improper discharge of waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for dichloromethane at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to dichloromethane.

Di (2-ethylhexyl)adipate

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate is a widely used plasticizer in a variety of products, including synthetic rubber, food packaging materials and cosmetics. It may get into drinking water after improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to damage liver and testes in laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed to high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate at 0.4 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standards is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate.

Go to top of page

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a widely used plasticizer, which is primarily used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins. It may get into drinking water after improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate at 0.006 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

Dinoseb

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that dinoseb is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. Dinoseb is a widely used pesticide and generally gets into drinking water after application on orchards, vineyards and other crops. This chemical has been shown to damage the thyroid and reproductive organs in laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels. EPA has set the drinking water standard for dinoseb at 0.007 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to dinoseb.

Diquat

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that diquat is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a herbicide used to control terrestrial and aquatic weeds. It may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract and causes cataract formation in laboratory animals such as dogs and rats exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for diquat at 0.02 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to diquat.

Go to top of page

References
9/93
detailed report from Oregon State University.

Endothall

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that endothall is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a herbicide used to control terrestrial and aquatic weeds. It may get into water by runoff into surface water. This chemical has been shown to damage the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive system of laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for endothall at 0.1 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to endothall.

Endrin

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that endrin is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a pesticide no longer registered for use in the United States. However, this chemical is persistent in treated soils and accumulates in sediments and aquatic and terrestrial biota. This chemical has been shown to cause damage to the liver, kidney and heart in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for endrin at 0.002 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water that meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to endrin.

Go to top of page

Glyphosate

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that glyphosate is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a herbicide used to control grasses and weeds. It may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water. This chemical has been shown to cause damage to the liver and kidneys in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for glyphosate at 0.7 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to glyphosate.

Hexachlorobenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that hexachlorobenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is produced as an impurity in the manufacture of certain solvents and pesticides. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for hexachlorobenzene at 0.001 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to hexachlorobenzene.

Go to top of page

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes drinking water standards and has determined that hexachlorocyclopentadiene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pesticides and flame retardants. It may get into water by discharge from production facilities. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney and the stomach of laboratory animals when exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for hexachlorocyclopentadiene at 0.05 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to hexachlorocyclopentadiene.

Oxamyl

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes drinking water standards and has determined that oxamyl is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a pesticide for the control of insects and other pests. It may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or leaching into ground water. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidneys of laboratory animals such as rats when exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for oxamyl at 0.2 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to oxamyl.

Go to top of page

Picloram

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that picloram is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a pesticide for broadleaf weed control. It may get into drinking water by runoff into surface water or leaching into ground water as a result of pesticide application and improper waste disposal. This chemical has been shown to cause damage to the kidneys and liver in laboratory animals such as rats when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for picloram at 0.5 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to picloram.

Simazine

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that simazine is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is a herbicide used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. It may leach into ground water or runs off into surface water after application. This chemical may cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice exposed at high levels during their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for simazine at 0.004 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to simazine.

Go to top of page

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is used as a dye carrier and as a precursor in herbicide manufacture. It generally gets into drinking water by discharges from industrial activities. This chemical has been shown to cause damage to several organs, including the adrenal glands. EPA has set the drinking water standard for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at 0.07 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined 1,1,2-trichloroethane is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is an intermediate in the production of 1,1-dichloroethylene. It generally gets into water by industrial discharge of wastes. This chemical has been shown to damage the kidney and liver of laboratory animals such as rats exposed to high levels during their lifetimes. EPA has set the drinking water standard for 1,1,2-trichloroethane at 0.005 parts per million (ppm) to protect against the risk of these adverse health effects. Drinking water which meets the EPA standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to 1,1,2-trichloroethane.

2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets drinking water standards and has determined that dioxin is a health concern at certain levels of exposure. This organic chemical is an impurity in the production of some pesticides. It may get into drinking water by industrial discharge of wastes. This chemical has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals such as rats and mice when the animals are exposed at high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratory animals also may increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed over long periods of time. EPA has set the drinking water standard for dioxin at 0.00000003 parts per million (ppm) to reduce the risk of cancer or other adverse health effects which have been observed in laboratory animals. Drinking water which meets this standard is associated with little to none of this risk and should be considered safe with respect to dioxin.

 

A. K. Vaidian, MD, MPH,Commissioner of Behavioral & Community Health A. K. Vaidian, MD, MPH
Commissioner of Behavioral & Community Health
Dutchess County Seal

Accessibility